REVIEW PAPER
Common plants used in the treatment of typhoid fever, their active components and toxicity related issues: A review
 
More details
Hide details
1
Medical Microbiology, Kenyatta University, Kenya
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Teh Exodus Akwa   

Medical Microbiology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, 43844, Nairobi, Kenya
Submission date: 2021-07-14
Final revision date: 2021-08-13
Acceptance date: 2021-08-13
Online publication date: 2021-08-13
Publication date: 2021-08-19
 
NRFHH 2021;1(1):36–42
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Plants and their extracts are a primary source of health care in most communities. The usage of plants in the treatment of diseases has been observed in ancient times and still applicable in the present. Plants extracts are used due to their easy availability and affordability. Some of these extracts are being sold locally in markets while others manufactured and used in household settings. Most often, the producers of these extracts do not show proof of safety and efficacy before marketing these products. Consequently, the negative effects and the downside following the consumption of these products remain unknown. Moreover, the plant extracts are not regulated for purity and potency. Impurities present and the potency of the plant products might also contribute significantly to adverse effects following consumption. Typhoid fever has been one of the disease in which most developing countries especially in Africa, resort to the usage of traditional methods involving plant extracts in its treatment. Various research carried out have documented the anti-typhoid activity of these extracts on the basis of zone of inhibition against the pathogen. There is however scarcity of information on the bioactive components possessed by these plants. This paper reviews the common plants used in the treatment of typhoid fever, active components and risk following their indiscriminate usage. The review is composed by literature search on herbal plants for typhoid fever obtained from PubMed and Google Scholar. Knowledge of these active components will help effectively standardize the safe dose needed in the disease treatment
 
REFERENCES (62)
1.
Akwa TE, Nguimbous SP (2021). Investigation of Typhoid Fever and their Associated Risk Factors in Children Attending “Deo Gratias” Hospital in Douala, Littoral, Cameroon. European Journal of Medical and Educational Technologies ; 14(2): em2107. https://doi.org/10.30935/ ejmets/10910.
 
2.
Butt T, Ahmad RN, Mahmood A, Zaidi S (2003) Ciprofloxacin treatment failure in typhoid fever case, Pakistan. Emerg Infect Dis 9:1621-1622.
 
3.
Crump JA, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, Parry CM (2015). Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections. Clin Microbiol Rev; 28(4): 901–37. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00002-15 PMID: 26180063.
 
4.
Hasan BB, Soghra M, Hossein H (2017). Toxicology effects of saffron and its constituents: a review. Iran J Basic Med Sci.20(2):110–21.
 
5.
Gul S, Eraj A, Ashraf Z. (2015). Glycyrrhiza glabra and Azadirachta indica against Salmonella typhi: herbal treatment as an alternative therapy for typhoid fever. iMedPub J (Arch Med), 7(6/4), 1-5.
 
6.
Rajakani R, Narnoliya L, Sangwan NS, Sangwan RS, Gupta V. (2014). Subtractive transcriptomes of fruit and leaf reveal differential representation of transcripts in Azadirachta indica. Tree Genetics & Genomes, 10(5), 1331–1351.
 
7.
Brindha MS, kariyarasi S, Annadurai NS, Gangwar SK (2012) Antimicrobial activity in leaf extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica). International journal of science and Natural; 3: 110.
 
8.
Kokate C, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB (2010). Pharmacognosy. Maharashtra, India: Nirali Prakashan; 2010.
 
9.
Hossain MA, Shah MD, Sakari M (2014). Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of various organic extracts of Merremia borneensis from Sabah. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 4(8):637–641. doi: 10.1016/s1995-7645(11)60162-4.
 
10.
Deng YX, Cao M, Shi DX (2013). Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology; 35(2):240–246. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.
 
11.
Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya SK, Acharya SB (1994). Anxiolytic activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract in rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology; 32(7):489–491.
 
12.
Lai SM, Lim KW, Cheng HK (1990). Margosa oil poisoning as a cause of toxic encephalopathy. Singapore Medical Journal. 1990;31(5):463–465.
 
13.
Orwa CA, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S (2009). Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0.
 
14.
Moronkola, DO, Yeboah SO, Majinda RR and Sichilongo K (2015). Compositions of Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poiret leaf and stem essential oils. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 7(5), 959-964.
 
15.
More NV, Datkar SM, Bhagat RP, Patil VV. (2018). Plants as a source of a novel anti-typhoid therapeutic agents: A Review.
 
16.
Oboh G, Akomolafe TL, Adefegha SA, Adetuyi AO (2010). Antioxidant and modulatory effect of ethanolic extract of Madagascar Harungana (Harungana madagascariensis) bark on cyclophosphamide induced neurotoxicity in rats. J Food Drug Anal;18(3):171–9.
 
17.
Shorinwa AO, Monsi B (2020). Toxicological implications of the fruit of Harungana madagascariensis on wistar rats. Clinical Phytoscience :6:2 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40816....
 
18.
Biapa PCN, Oben JE, Ngogang JY (2012). Acute and subacute toxicity of Harungana madagascariensis Lam. Afri J Pharm Sci Pharm;3(1):45–7.
 
19.
Bensky, Dan (2004). Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition. Eastland Press. ISBN 978-0-939616-42-8.
 
20.
Roshan A (2012) A phytochemical constituents pharmacological activities and medicinal plant use through millennia the Glycyrrhiza glabra. International research journal of pharmacy.
 
21.
Yu JJ, Zhang CS, Coyle ME, Du Y, Zhang AL Guo, X (2017). Compound glycyrrhizin plus conventional therapy for Psoriasis vulgaris: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 33 (2): 279–287. doi:10.1080/03007995.2016.1254605. PMID 27786567. S2CID 4394282.
 
22.
Olukoga A, Donaldson D (2000). "Liquorice and its health implications". The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. 120(2):83–9. doi:10.1177/146642400012000203. PMID 10944880.
 
23.
Omar HR, Komarova I, El-Ghonemi M, Ahmed FR, Abdelmalak HD (2012). "How much is too much? in Licorice abuse: time to send a warning message from Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism". Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 3 (4): 125–38. doi:10.1177/2042018812454322. PMC 3498851. PMID 23185686.
 
24.
Armanini D, Fiore C, Mattarello MJ, Bielenberg J, Palermo, M (2002). "History of the endocrine effects of licorice". Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes. 110 (6): 257–61. doi:10.1055/s-2002-34587. PMID 12373628.
 
25.
Burkill HM. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Royal Botanic Gardens. 2000.
 
26.
Akinyemi KO, Oladapo O, Okwara CE, Ibe CC, Fasure KA (2005). Screening of crude extracts of six medicinal plants used in South-West Nigerian unorthodox medicine for antimethicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine;5(1):10- 1186.
 
27.
Abourashed EA, Toyang NJ, Choinski J, Khan Ian (1999). Two New Flavone Glycosides from Paullinia pinnata. Journal of Natural Products;62(8):1179-1181.
 
28.
Lunga PK , Gatsing D, Nkodo JM, Tamokou JD, Kuiate JR, Tchoumboue J. (2015)Post-Treatment Evaluation of the Side Effects of Methanol Leaf Extract from Paullinia pinnata (Linn.), an Antityphoid Plant. Pharmacologia;6(7):264-272.
 
29.
Annan K, Gbedema S, Adu F (2009). Antibacterial and radical scavenging activity of fatty acids from Paullinia pinnata L. Phcog. Mag;5(S2):119-123.
 
30.
Salami AA, Makinde JM. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of the methanol extract of the leaves of Paullinia pinnata (Linn.) in Wistar albino mice and rats. Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 2013;42:81-90.
 
31.
Nnah IJ, Uche EE (2014). Effect of ethanol extract of Paullinia pinnata leaves on the blood pressure of cats. IJMPS;4:21-26.
 
32.
Amar S, Resham V, Saple DG (2008). Aloe Vera: A Short Review. Indian Journal of Dermatology. 53(4): 163–166. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.44785.
 
33.
Roger T, Pierre MM, Patrick VD (2013). Medicinal plants used against typhoid fever in Bamboutos division, Western Cameroon. Journal of Plants, People, and Applied Research, Ethnobotany Research & Applications 11:163–174.
 
34.
Lelimiska IS, Ade RJ, Mochammad H, Ressy D, Cahyono K, Muhammad RP (2020). A mini review: Medicinal Plants for Typhoid Fever in Indonesia. A multifaceted review journal in the field of pharmacy. 11(6):1171-1180.
 
35.
Eshun K, He Q (2004). "Aloe vera: a valuable ingredient for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries—a review". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 44 (2): 91–96. doi:10.1080/10408690490424694. PMID 15116756. S2CID 21241302.
 
36.
Atherton P (1998). Aloe vera revisited. Br J Phytother;4:76–83.
 
37.
OEHHA (2015). Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment Chemicals Aloe Vera, “non-decolorized whole Leaf Extract, and Goldenseal Root Powder". Retrieved 21 February 2020.
 
38.
Kamagaté M, Camille K, N’goran M, Aminata A (2014). Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology profiles of Cassia siamea Lam. The Journal of Phytopharmacology ; 3(1): 57-76.
 
39.
Otimenyin S.O., Kolawole J.A., and Nwosu M (2010). Pharmacological basis for the continual use of the root of Senna siamea in traditional medicine. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences; 1: 975-6299.
 
40.
Doughari JH, El Mahmoud AM. Manzara S. Studies on the antibacterial activity of root extracts of Carica papaya L. Afr J Microbiol Res 2007;037-041.
 
41.
Mohammed A, Liman ML, Atiku MK (2013). Chemical composition of the methanolic leaf and stem bark extracts of Senna siamea Lam. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy; 5: 98-100.
 
42.
Lawanprasert S, Chaichantipyuth C, Unchern S, lawanprasert Y (2001). In vitro hepatotoxicity study of barakol using human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; 25: 149-159.
 
43.
Ong H, Chua S, Milow P (2011). Ethnomedicinal plants used by the temuan villagers in kampung jeram kedah, negeri sembilan, Malaysia. Ethnomed Plants;5:95–100.
 
44.
Krishna KL, Paridhavi M, Jagruti AP (2008). Review on nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological properties of Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.). Nat Prod Radian;7:364-73.
 
45.
Heywood VH, Brummitt RK, Culham A, Seberg, O (2007). Flowering plant families of the world. Firefly Books. ISBN 9781554072064.
 
46.
Ayoola PB, Adeyeye A (2010). Phytochemical and nutrient evaluation of Carica papaya (pawpaw) leaves. Int J Res Rev Appl Sci;5:325-8.
 
47.
Doughari JH, Okafor NB (2008). Antibacterial activity of Senna siamae leaf extracts on Salmonella typhi. African Journal of Microbiology Research. Vol.(2) pp.042-046.
 
48.
Peter JK, Kumar Y, Pandey P, Masih H. (2014). Antibacterial activity of seed and leaf extract of Carica papaya var. pusa dwarf Linn. J Pharm Biol Sci;9:29-37.
 
49.
Titanji, V.P.; Zofou, D.; Ngemenya, M.N. (2008). "The Antimalarial Potential of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Malaria in Cameroonian Folk Medicine". African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 5 (3): 302–321. PMC 2816552. PMID 20161952.
 
50.
FAO (2014). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Moringa. Traditional Crop of the Month.
 
51.
Sreelatha S, Padma PR. (2009). "Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity". Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 64 (4): 303–311. doi:10.1007/s11130-009-0141-0. PMID 19904611. S2CID 8801347.
 
52.
Marcela Vergara-Jimenez, Manal Mused Almatrafi, and Maria Luz Fernandez (2017). Bioactive Components in Moringa Oleifera Leaves Protect against Chronic Disease. MDPI Antioxidants (Basel). 6(4): 91. DOI: 10.3390/antiox6040091. PMCID: PMC5745501.
 
53.
George AA, Ben G, Kwasi B, Samuel A (2012). Toxicity potentials of the nutraceutical Moringa oleifera atsupra-supplementation levels. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 139: 265– 272.
 
54.
Douglas Harper (2018). "Garlic (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
 
55.
Adebolu TT, Adeoye OO, Oyetayo VO (2011). Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on Salmonella typhi infection, gastrointestinal flora and hematological parameters of albino rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 10(35): 6804-6808.
 
56.
Kodera Y, Ushijima M, Amano H, Suzuki J, Matsutomo T (2017). Chemical and biological properties of S-1-propenyl-l-cysteine in aged garlic extract. Molecules; 22:570. doi: 10.3390/molecules22040570.
 
57.
Yoo DY, Kim W, Nam SM, Yoo M, Lee S, Yoon YS, Won MH (2014). Neuroprotective effects of Z-ajoene, an organosulfur compound derived from oil-macerated garlic, in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia. Food Chem. Toxicol;72:1–7. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.06.023.
 
58.
Mansingh DP, Dalpati N, Sali VK, Vasanthi AH (2018). Alliin the precursor of allicin in garlic extract mitigates proliferation of gastric adenocarcinoma cells by modulating apoptosis. Pharmacogn. Mag. 2018;14:S84–S91.
 
59.
Nagella P, Thiruvengadam M, Ahmad A, Yoon JY, Chung IM. (2014). Composition of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of garlic bulbs collected from different locations of Korea. Asian J. Chem;26:897–902. doi: 10.14233/ajchem.2014.16143A.
 
60.
Hang X. Isolation and identification of garlic polysaccharide. Food Sci. 2005;26:48–51.
 
61.
NCCIH (201). "Garlic". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. April 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
 
62.
Brown, Deanna G.; Wilkerson, Eric C.; Love, W. Elliot (2015). "A review of traditional and novel oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy for dermatologists and dermatologic surgeons". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (published March 2015). 72 (3): 524–34. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2014.10.027. PMID 25486915.