ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
Biology
 
ABSTRACT
Zoonoses contribute an estimated 75% of new or re-emerging infectious diseases in humans with Covid-19 being the latest addition. Carnivores act as definitive hosts and reservoirs for several endoparasites with varied effects on human health. These interactions are fluctuating and adaptive, changing in response to various biotic and abiotic conditions. With the development of ‘One health movement’ more focus has been laid on zoonotic infections and their management. The present study showed that carnivores of Dampa Tiger Reserve (DTR) are host to several infectious parasites with a prevalence rate of 90.47%. Families like Felidae, Canidae, and Viverridae were found to host the maximum number of parasites. The parasite Paragonimus spp. were recorded to be present in the highest number (33 nos.) of scat samples followed by Strongyle spp. (27 nos.), Ascaris lumbricoides (23 nos.), and Isospora spp. (19 nos.). These parasites are known to infect humans through different modes like faecal-oral route, uncooked meat, fishes, and contaminated water and induced health implications like inflammatory in the brain, bronchitis, covert toxocariasis, acute lung inflammation etc. As the surrounding landscape of DTR continuous to shrink and humans are more prone to these parasites through their daily activities and lifestyle, the study will be crucial for providing a platform for future epidemiological study and diseases management in the region.
 
REFERENCES (47)
1.
Acharjyo, L.N., 2004. Helminthiasis in captive wild carnivores and its control in India. Zoo Print. 19(7), 1540-1543. https://doi.org/11609/JOTT.ZPJ....
 
2.
Andres, J.M., English, J.E., Greiner, E.C., 2014. Acanthocephalan infection probably associated with cockroach exposure in an infant with failure- to-thrive. Pediatric Infectious Disease. 6(2), 63-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pid.....
 
3.
Bahrndorff, S., Alemu, T., Alemneh, T., Nielsen, J.L., 2016. The Microbiome of animals: Implications for Conservation Biology. International Journal of Genomics. 1-7. http://.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5....
 
4.
Beltrame, M.O., Bellusci, A., Fernández, F.J., Sardella, N.H., 2018. Carnivores as zoonotic parasite reservoirs in ancient times: The case of the Epullán Chica archaeological cave (Late Holocene, north-western Patagonia, Argentina). Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 10, 795–804. http://.doi.org/10.1007/s12520....
 
5.
Cleaveland, S., Laurenson, M.K., Taylor, L.H., 2001. Diseases of humans and their domestic mammals: Pathogen characteristics, host range and the risk of emergence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 356 (1411), 991-999. http://.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2....
 
6.
Colon, C.P., Patton, S., 2013. Parasites of civets (Mammalia, Viverridae) in Sabah, Borneo: A caprological survey. Malaysian Nature Journal. 64(2), 87-94.
 
7.
Darlan, D.M., Rozi, M.F., Yulfi, H., 2021. Overview of immunological responses and immunomodulation properties of Trichuris sp.: Prospects for better understanding human Trichuriasis. Life. 11, 188. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11....
 
8.
Diaz, J.H., 2013. Paragonimiasis acquired in the United States: native and non-native species. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 26(3), 493–504. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00....
 
9.
Dib, L.V., Palmer, J.P.S., Carvalho, C.D.S., Pinheiro, J.L., Ramos, J.L., Santos, C.R. et al., 2020. Non-invasive sampling in Itatiaia National Park, Brazil: Wild mammal parasite detection. BMC Veterinary Research. 16(1), 295. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917....
 
10.
Diemert, D.J., 2017. Cestode and Trematode infections. Infectious Disease. 1032–1037.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0....
 
11.
Dold, C., Holland, C.V., 2010. Ascaris and Ascarisis. Microbes and Infection. 13, 632-637. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mici....
 
12.
Figueiredo, A.M., Carvalho, L.M., González, M.J.P., Torres, R.T., Pla, S., Núñez-Arjona, J.C., Rueda, C. et al., 2021. Parasites of the reintroduced Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus) and sympatric mesocarnivores in extremadura, Spain. Pathogens. 10(3), 274. https://doi.org/10..3390/patho....
 
13.
Fuehrer, H.P., Igel, P., Auer, H., 2011. Capillaria hepatica in man- An overview of Hepatic Capillariosis and Spurious infections. Parasitology Research. 109, 969-979. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436....
 
14.
Giarratana, F., Nalbone, L., Napoli, E., Lanzo, V., Panebianco, A., 2021. Prevalence of Balantidium coli (Malmsten, 1857) infection in swine reared in South Italy: A widespread neglected zoonosis. Veterinary World. 14(4), 1044-1049. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetwo....
 
15.
Gibb, R., Redding, D., Chin, K., Donnelly, C., Blackburn, T., Newbold, T., Lones, L., 2020a. Zoonotic host diversity increases in human-dominated ecosystems. Nature. 584, 398–402. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586....
 
16.
Gibb, R., Franklinos, L.H.V., Redding, D.W., Jones, K.E., 2020b. Ecosystem perspectives are needed to manage zoonotic risks in a changing climate. BMJ 371:m3389. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3....
 
17.
Gillespie, T.A., 2006. Non-invasive assessment of gastrointestinal parasite infections in free ranging primates. International Journal of Primatology. 27(4), 1129-1143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764...
 
18.
Gouda, S., Decemson, H.T., Parida, A., Solanki, G.S., 2020. Impact of shifting cultivation on mammalian diversity and distribution in fringe areas of Dampa Tiger Reserve, Mizoram, India. Environment Conservation Journal. 21 (1&2), 103-115. https://doi.org/10.36953/ECJ.2....
 
19.
Habtamu. T., Bekele, A., Mohammed, A., Tolemariam, T., Birlie, B., Belay, B., 2017. Parasites of wild and captive African Civets (Civettictis civetta) from Limmu, Southwestern Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences. 11(4), 194-201. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajas.2....
 
20.
Hauffe, H.C., Barelli, C., 2019. Conserve the germs: the gut microbiota and adaptive potential. Conservation Genetics. 20, 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592....
 
21.
Herrera, J., Nunn, C.L., 2019. Behavioural ecology and infectious diseases: implications for conservation of biodiversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 374, 20180054. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2....
 
22.
Johnson, C.K., Hitchens, P.L., Evans, T.S., Goldstein, T., Thomas, K., Mazet, J.K., et al., 2015. Spillover and pandemic properties of zoonotic viruses with high host plasticity. Scientific Reports. 5, 14830. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep14....
 
23.
Jones, K.E., Patel, N.G., Levy, M.A., Storeygard, A., Balk, D., Gittleman, J.L., et al., 2008. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature. 451, 990–993. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature....
 
24.
Keatts, L.O., Robards, M., Olson, S.H., Hueffer, K., Insley, S.J., Joly, D.O., Kutz, S., et al., 2021. Implications of zoonoses from hunting and use of wildlife in North American Arctic and Boreal Biomes: Pandemic potential, monitoring, and mitigation. Frontiers in Public Health. 9, 627-654. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.....
 
25.
Keesing, F., Ostfeld, R.S., 2021. Impacts of biodiversity and biodiversity loss on zoonotic diseases. PNAS. 118(17), e2023540118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2....
 
26.
Lattès, S., Ferté, H., Delaunay, P., Depaquit, J., Vassallo, J., Vittier, M., Kokcha, S., Coulibaly, E., Marty, P., 2011. Trichostrongylus colubriformis nematode infections in humans, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17(7), 1301-1302. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid170....
 
27.
Leeming, E.R., Louca, P., Gibson, R., Menni, C., Spector, T.D., Roy, C.I.L., 2021. The complexities of the diet-microbiome relationship: advances and perspectives. Genome Medicine. 13(10) 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13073....
 
28.
Luiz, E., Tavares, R., Luque, J.L., Teresa, C.B., Bomfim, D.O., 2005. Human Diphyllobothriasis: Reports from Rio-De Janeiro, Brazil. Revista Brasileira Parasitologia Veterinaria. 14(2), 85-87.
 
29.
Maharana, B.R., Gupta, S., Gupta, S., Ganguly, A., Kumar, B., Chandratra, G.A., Bisla, R. S., 2021. First report of molecular and phylogenetic analysis of Physaloptera praeputialis in naturally infected stray cats from India. Parasitological Research. 120(6), 2047-2056. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436....
 
30.
Marathe, R.R., Goel, S.S., Ranade, S.P., Jog, M.M., Watve, M.G., 2002. Patterns in abundance and diversity of faecally dispersed parasites of Tiger in Tadoba National Park, central India. BMC Ecology. 2(6), 1472-1482. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6....
 
31.
Murell, K.D., Pozio, E., 2017. The Liver flukes: Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis spp; and Metorchis spp. In: J.B. Rose and B. Jimenez- Cisneros, (eds) Global water pathogens Project. Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI, UNESCO. https://doi.org/10.14321/water....
 
32.
Nath, T.C., Eom, K.S., Choe, S., Hm, S., Islam, S., Ndosi, B.A., Kang, Y., et al., 2021. Insight into One health Approach: Endoparasites infection in captive wildlife in Bangladesh. Pathogens. 10(2), 250. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathog....
 
33.
Otranto, D, Deplazes, P., 2019. Zoonotic nematodes of wild carnivores. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. 9, 370–383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp....
 
34.
Otranto, D., Cantacessi. C., Dantas-Torres, F., Brianti, E., Pfeffer, M., Genchi, C., Guberti, V., Capelli, G., Deplazes, P., 2015. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part II: Helminths and arthropods. Veterinary Parasitology. 213(1-2), 24-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetp....
 
35.
Plowright, R.K., Reaser, J.K., Locke, H., Woodley, S.J., Patz, J.A., Becker, D., Oppler, G., Hudson, P., Tabor, G.M., 2021. Land use-induced spillover: A call to action to safeguard environmental, animal, and human health. The Lancet Planetary Health. 5(4), E237-E245. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-....
 
36.
Pungpak, S., Viravan, C., Radomyos, B., et al., 1997. Opisthorchis viverrini infection in Thailand: studies on the morbidity of the infection and resolution following praziquantel treatment. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 56(3), 311-314. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.....
 
37.
Recht, J., Schuenemann, V.J., Sánchez-Villagra, M.R., 2020. Host diversity and origin of Zoonoses: The Ancient and the New. Animals. 10(9), 1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani100....
 
38.
Ruth, E.L., Hamady, M., Lozupone, C., Turnbaugh, P., Ramey, R.R., Bircher, J.S., et al., 2008. Evolution of mammals and their gut microbes. Science. 320(5883), 1647–1651. https://doi.org/10.1126/scienc....
 
39.
Sarvi, S., Daryani, A., Sharif, M., Rahimi, M.T., Kohansal, M.H., Mirshafiee, S., Siyadatpanah, A., Hosseini, S., Gholami, S., 2018. Zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores: A systematic review in Iran. Veterinary World. 11(1), 58-65. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetwo....
 
40.
Schuster, F.L., Ramirez-Avila, L., 2008. Current world status of Balantidium coli. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 21(4), 626–38. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00....
 
41.
Scott, M.E., 2008. Ascaris lumbricoides: A review of its epidemiology and relationship to other infections. Annales Nestle. 66, 7-22. https://doi.org/10.1159/000113....
 
42.
Sevá, A.P. Pena, H.F.J., Nava, A., Sousa, A.O., Holsback, L., Soares, R.M., 2018. Endoparasites in domestic animals surrounding an Atlantic Forest remnant, in São Paulo State, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary and Parasitology. 27(1), 12-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S198....
 
43.
Singh, P., Macdonald, D.W., 2017. Populations and activity patterns of Clouded leopards and Marbled cats in Dampa Tiger Reserve India. Journal of Mammalogy. 98(5), 1453-1462. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmamma....
 
44.
Solanki, G.S., Lalchhandama, D., Lalnunpuii., 2016. Use pattern of faunal resources by tribal and its impact on biodiversity in Dampa Tiger Reserve in Mizoram, India. Journal of Bioresources. 3(1), 24-29.
 
45.
Stuart, P., Golden, O., Zintl, A., De-Waal, T., Mulcahy, G., McCarthy, E., Lawton, C., 2013. A coprological survey of parasites of wild carnivores in Ireland. Parasitological Resources. 112(10), 3587-3593. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436....
 
46.
Wicker, L.V., Canfield, P.J., Higgins, D.P., 2017. Potential pathogens reported in species of the family Viverridae and their implications for human and animal health. Zoonoses and Public Health. 64(2), 75-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/zph.12....
 
47.
Woolhouse, M.E.J., Gowtage- Sequeria, S., 2005. Host-range and emerging and re-emerging pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11(12), 1842–1847. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid111....