REVIEW PAPER
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Activities of anthropological organisms lead to the production of massive lignocellulosic waste every year and these lignocellulolytic enzymes plays crucial role in developing eco-friendly, sustainable and economical methods for decomposing and pre-treating the biomass to produce biofuels, organic acids, feeds and enzymes. Lignocellulolytic enzymes sustainably hydrolyse the biomass and can be utilized in wide range of applications such as personal care, pharmaceutical, biofuel release, sewage treatment, food and beverage industries. Every year a significant ton of biomass waste is released and insight on these crucial enzymes could establish in all the industries. However, due to the increased demand for compost materials, biomass degradation has resulted in composting processes. Several methods for improving compost amount and quality have been explored, including increasing decomposer inoculums, stimulating microbial activity, and establishing a decomposable environment. All of these prerequisites are met by biotechnological applications. Biotechnological procedures are used to improve the activity of enzymes on biomass. It leads to an adequate supply of compost and base materials for enterprises. In terms of effectiveness and stability during the breakdown process, lignocellulolytic enzymes derived from genetically modified species outperformed naturally derived lignocellulolytic enzymes. It has the potential to increase the quality and output of by-products. This review discussed the development of lignocellulolytic enzyme families and their widespread applications in a variety of industries such as olive oil extraction, carotenoid extraction, waste management, pollution control, second-generation bio-ethanol production, textile and dyeing, pharmaceuticals, pulp and paper, animal feed, food processing industries, detergent, and agricultural industries.
 
REFERENCES (105)
1.
Adlakha, N., Sawant, S., Anil, A., Lali, A., Yazdani, S., 2012. Specific Fusion of β-1,4-Endoglucanase and β-1,4-Glucosidase Enhances Cellulolytic Activity and Helps in Channeling of Intermediates. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 78(20), 7447–7454. https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.01....
 
2.
Albert, A., Carme, R., 2015. Reaction Mechanisms in Carbohydrate- Active Enzymes: Glycoside Hydrolases and Glycosyltransferases. Insights from ab Initio Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Dynamic Simulations. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 137(24), 7528–7547. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5....
 
3.
Alexandre, C., Po, W.C., K, A., 2014. Catalytic Hydrolysis of Cellulose to Glucose Using Weak-Acid Surface Sites on Postsynthetically Modified Carbon. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 2(12), 2866– 2872. https://doi.org/10.1021/sc5006....
 
4.
Ali, L., Algaithi, R., Habib, H., Souka, U., Rauf, M., Ashraf, S., 2013. Soybean peroxidase-mediated degradation of an azo dye- a detailed mechanistic study. BMC Biochemistry. 14(1), 35–35. https://doi.org/ 10.1186/1471-2091-14-35.
 
5.
Amerah, A., Gilbert, C., Simmins, P., Ravindran, V., 2011. Influence of feed processing on the efficacy of exogenous enzymes in broiler diets. World’s Poultry Science Journal. 67(1), 29–46. 10.1017/ S0043933911000031.
 
6.
Animal feed market report, G., 2018. Global animal feed market report. https://www.technavio.com/repo.... Date accessed: July, 2021.
 
7.
Arola, S., Linder, M., 2016. Binding of cellulose binding modules reveal differences between cellulose substrates. Scientific Reports. 6, 35358. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep35....
 
8.
Arriola, K., Oliveira, A., Ma, Z., Lean, I., Giurcanu, M., Adesogan, A., 2017. A meta-analysis on the effect of dietary application of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on the performance of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 100(6), 4513–4527. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
 
9.
Aysegul, O., Ugur, U., Halil, I., Fulya, A.S., Ali, O.B., Ilhan, D., Sabriye, C., 2018. Improved pulp bleaching potential of Bacillus subtilis WB800 through overexpression of three lignolytic enzymes from various bacteria. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. 65(4), 560–571. https://doi.org/10.1002/bab.16....
 
10.
Bajaj, P., Mahajan, R., 2019. Cellulase and xylanase synergism in industrial biotechnology. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 103, 8711– 8724. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253....
 
11.
Bamforth, C.W., 2009. Current perspectives on the role of enzymes in brewing. Journal of Cereal Science. 50(3), 353–357. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jcs.2009.03.001.
 
12.
Bassi, R., Pineau, P., Dainese, P., Marquardt, J., 1993. Carotenoid-binding proteins of photosystem II. European Journal of Biochemistry. 212(2), 297–303. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432....
 
13.
Beri, D., York, W., Lynd, L., Peña, M., 2020. Development of a thermophilic coculture for corn fiber conversion to ethanol. Nature Communications. 2020(1), 11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467....
 
14.
Bhat, M.K., 2000. Cellulases and related enzymes in biotechnology. Biotechnology Advances. 18(5), 355–383. https://doi.org/10.1016/ s0734-9750(00)00041-0.
 
15.
Bhatia, L., Sharma, A., Bachheti, Rk, Chandel, A.K., 2019. Lignocellulose derived functional oligosaccharides: production, properties, and health benefits. Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology. 49(8), 744–758. https://doi.org/10.1080/108260....
 
16.
Bisaria, R., Madan, M., Vasudevan, P., 1997. Utilization of agro-residues as animal feed through bioconversion. Bioresource Technology. 59(1), 5–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-....
 
17.
Chandrasekaran, M., Basheer, S., Chellappan, S., Krishna, J., Beena, P., 2017. Enzymes in food and beverage production: an overview, In: 1st (Eds.); R.K. Sukumaran et al., (Eds.), Enzym Food Beverage Process. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 117–137.
 
18.
Christina, M.P., Brandon, C.K., Heather, B.M., Henrik, H., Michael, E.H., Mats, S., Gregg, J.S., B, T., 2015. Fungal Cellulases. Chemical Reviews. 115(3), 1308–1448. https://doi.org/10.1021/ cr500351c.
 
19.
Çinar, I., 2005. Effects of cellulase and pectinase concentrations on the colour yield of enzyme extracted plant carotenoids. Process Biochemistry. 40(2), 945–949. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proc....
 
20.
Davies, G., Mackenzie, L., Varrot, A., Dauter, M., Brzozowski, A., Schülein, M., Withers, S., 1998. Snapshots along an Enzymatic Reaction Coordinate: Analysis of a Retaining β-Glycoside Hydro- lase. Biochemistry. 37(34), 11707–11713. https://doi.org/10.1021/ bi981315i.
 
21.
Derek, S., 2008. Lignin as a base material for materials applications: Chemistry, application and economics. Industrial Crops and Prod- ucts. 27, 202–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indc....
 
22.
Dienes, D., Egyhazi, A., Reczey, K., 2004. Treatment of recycled fiber with Trichoderma cellulases. Industrial Crops and Products. 20(1), 11–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indc....
 
23.
Dmitry, T., Mathew, L., Pedram, F., 2018. Lignin-carbohydrate complexes: properties, applications, analyses, and methods of extraction: a review. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 11, 269. https:// doi.org/10.1186/s13068-018-126....
 
24.
Dutra, T., Guimarães, V., Varela, E., Fialho, L., Milagres, A., Falkoski, D., Zanuncio, J., Rezende, S., 2017. A Chrysoporthe cubensis enzyme cocktail produced from a low-cost carbon source with high biomass hydrolysis efficiency. Scientific Reports. 7(1), 3893. https://doi.org/ 10.1038/s41598-017-04262-y.
 
25.
Eduardo, C.M., Thabata, M.A., Gabriela, F.P., Geizecler, T., Livia, B.B., Douglas, A.A., Paixão, Gabriela, C.E., Juliana, A.A., Neil, C.C., Timothy, D., Fabio, D.H., S, M., 2018. Lignolytic-consortium omics analyses reveal novel genomes and pathways involved in lignin modification and valorization. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 11, 75. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13068....
 
26.
Eom, S., Chun, Y., Park, C.E., Kim, B.K., Lee, S.H., Park, D.J., 2018. Application of freeze-thaw enzyme impregnation to produce softened root vegetable foods for elderly consumers. Journal of Texture Studies. 49, 404–414. https://doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.1....
 
27.
Etienne, Y., Sanghoon, K., Zhili, H., Jizhong, Z., George, A.K., 2007. Functional microarray analysis of nitrogen and carbon cycling genes across an Antarctic latitudinal transect. ISME J. 1, 163–179. https:// doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2007.24.
 
28.
fact sheet, I., 2019. https://ifif.org/. Date accessed: July, 2021.
 
29.
Fantozzi, P., Petruccioli, G., Montedoro, G., 1997. Trattamenti con additivi enzimatici alle paste di oliva sottoposte ad estrazione per pressione unica: influenze delle cultivars, dell’epoca di raccolta e della conservazione,. , pp. 381–388.
 
30.
Faveri, D.D., Avogadro, A.K., Perego, M., Converti, P., A., 2008. Improvement of olive oil phenolics content by means of enzyme formulations: effect of different enzyme activities and levels. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 41(2), 149–156. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.bej.2008.04.007.
 
31.
Galante, Y.M., Deconti, A., Monteverdi, R., 1998. Application of Trichoderma enzymes in food and feed industries, H. GF K. CP, (Eds.), Trichoderma and Gliocladium-Enzymes. Taylor & Francis, pp. 311–326.
 
32.
Gupta, A., Gupta, R., Singh, R.L., 2016. Microbes and Environment, R.L. Singh et al., (Eds.), Principles and Applications of Environmental Biotechnology for a Sustainable Future. Springer Science+Business Media, Singapore, pp. 43–84. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-98....
 
33.
György, S., Arun, N.P., László, G.N., 2018. Genome expansion and lineage-specific genetic innovations in the forest pathogenic fungi Armillaria. Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2, 577–577. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559....
 
34.
Ihssen, J., Reiss, R., Luchsinger, R., Meyer, L.T., Richter, M., 2015. Biochemical properties and yields of diverse bacterial laccase-like multicopper oxidases expressed in Escherichia coli. Scientific Reports. 5, 10465. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep10....
 
35.
Inacrist, G., Payne, C.M., Mats, S., 2018. Hydrolysis and Transgly- cosylation Transition States of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 β- Glucosidases Differ in Charge and Puckering Conformation. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 122(41), 9452–9459. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jp....
 
36.
Jersson, P., Sergio, C., 2015. Ligninolytic enzymes: a biotechnological alternative for bioethanol production. Bioresources and Bioprocessing. 2, 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40643....
 
37.
Jinhua, Z., Yunxiang, W., Benzhong, Z., Yunbo, L., Qing, W., Lipu, G., 2019. Network analysis of noncoding RNAs in pepper provides insights into fruit ripening control. Scientific Reports. 9, 8734. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598....
 
38.
Joana, G.C., Pavel, G., Xihua, H., Robert, M., Wienke, R., Irina, S., 2019. Application of novel and technical lignins in food and pharmaceutical industries: structure-function relationship and current challenge. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 364. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399....
 
39.
José, M., Ana, Z.M., Heike, K., 2018. Soil-borne fungi challenge the concept of long-term biochemical recalcitrance of pyrochar. Scientific Reports. 8, 2896. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598....
 
40.
Katsimpouras, C., Dedes, G., Thomaidis, N.S., Topakas, E., 2019. A novel fungal GH30 xylanase with xylobiohydrolase auxiliary activity. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 12(1), 120. https://doi.org/10.1186/ s13068-019-1455-2.
 
41.
Kaur, A., Mahajan, R., Singh, A., Garg, G., Sharma, J., 2010. Application of cellulase-free xylano-pectinolytic enzymes from the same bacterial isolate in biobleaching of kraft pulp. Bioresource Technology. 101(23), 9150–9155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bior....
 
42.
Kelly, L., Fleming, J.P., 2013. Characterizing the Catalyzed Hydrolysis of β-1,4 Glycosidic Bonds Using Density Functional Theory. Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 117(51), 14200–14208. https://doi.org/ 10.1021/jp4081178.
 
43.
Kötzler, M., Robinson, K., Chen, H., Okon, M., Mcintosh, L., Withers, S., 2018. Modulating the Nucleophile of a Glycoside Hydrolase through Site-Specific Incorporation of Fluoroglutamic Acids. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 140(26), 8268– 8276. ttps://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.8b04235.
 
44.
Kramer, S.J., Pochapin, M.B., 2012. Gastric phytobezoar dissolution with ingestion of diet coke and cellulose. Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 8(11), 770–770.
 
45.
Krueger, N., Adesogan, A., 2008. Effects of different mixtures of fibrolytic enzymes on digestion and fermentation of bahiagrass hay. Animal feed science and technology. 145(1-4), 84–94.
 
46.
Kuan, I.C., Tien, M., 1993. Stimulation of Mn peroxidase activity: a possible role for oxalate in lignin biodegradation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 4, 1242–1246. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.9....
 
47.
Le, B., Yang, S.H., 2019. Production of prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharide from aqueous ammonia-pretreated rice straw by β-xylosidase of Weissella cibaria. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 126(6), 1861– 1868. https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.14....
 
48.
Lee, C.K., Ibrahim, D., Omar, I.C., Rosli, W., 2011. Pilot scale enzymatic deinking of mixed office wastepaper and old newspaper. BioResources. 6(4), 3809–3823.
 
49.
Lin, J., Ndlovu, L.M., Singh, S., Pillay, B., 1999. Purification and biochemical characteristics of β-D-xylanase from a thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus-SSBP. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. 30(1), 73–79.
 
50.
Marketing, E., 2018. Cellulase is essential for digesting fruits & vegetables. https://enzymedica.com/blogs/i.... Date accessed: June, 2021 Masey, O.Z., Smith, H.J., Bedford, M., 2014. Multicarbohydrase.
 
51.
Enzymes for Non-ruminants. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 27(2), 290–301. 10.5713/ajas.2013.13261.
 
52.
Melim, M.A., Souza, T., Costa, F.E., Paulo, L.B., Maria, G., 2013. Enzymes in Bakery: Current and Future Trends. Food Industry. 10.5772/53168.
 
53.
Méndez, L.J., De, E.L., Prieto, A., Martínez, M., 2020. The B- Glucosidase Secreted by Talaromyces Amestolkiae Under Carbon Starvation: A Versatile Catalyst For Biofuel Production From Plant And Algal Biomass. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 11, 123. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13068....
 
54.
Miao, Q., Chen, L., Huang, L., Tian, C., Zheng, L., Ni, Y., 2014. A process for enhancing the accessibility and reactivity of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp for viscose rayon production by cellulase treatment. Bioresource Technology. 154, 109–113. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.12.040.
 
55.
Miguel, A., Martins, M., Costa, F.E., Lobo, B., Dellamora, O.G., 2013. Enzymes in bakery: current and future trends, M.I. and others, (Eds.), Food industry. IntechOpen.
 
56.
Miia, R.M., Ronald, D.O., V, P., 2014. Plant biomass degradation by fungi. Fungal Genetics and Biology. 72, 2–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.....
 
57.
Mireille, H., Sacha, G., Navarro, D., Antoine, G., Jean-Guy, B., B, C., 2015. Recombinant protein production facility for fungal biomass- degrading enzymes using the yeast Pichia pastoris. Frontiers in Microbiology. 6, 1002. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.....
 
58.
Mohan, L., Dharam, D., Amit, K., Archana, G., 2015. Optimization of submerged fermentation conditions for two xylanase prodicers cor- prinellus disseminates MLK-01NTCC-1180 and MLK-07NTCC- 1181 and their biochemical characterization. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology. 49(5-6), 471–483.
 
59.
Murad, H., Azzaz, H., 2010. Cellulase and Dairy Animal Feeding. Biotechnology. 9(3), 238–256. https://dx.doi.org/10.3923/bio....
 
60.
Oksanen, J., Ahvenainen, J., Home, S., 1985. Microbial cellulase for improving filterability of wort and beer. Proceedings of the 20th European Brewery Chemistry Congress, 419–425.
 
61.
Olgun, O., Altay, Y., Yildiz, A., 2018. Effects of carbohydrase enzyme supplementation on performance, eggshell quality, and bone parameters of laying hens fed on maize- and wheat-based diets. British Poultry Science. 59(2), 211–217. https://doi.org/10.1080/000716....
 
62.
Ory, R., Angelo, A., 1977. Enzymes in Food and Beverage Processing. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 120–150. 10.1021/BK-1977-0047.
 
63.
Park, C.S., Roy, P.S., Kim, S.H., 2018. Current Developments in Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals, and others, (Eds.)., pp. 760–760. 10.5772/intechopen.71464.
 
64.
Pere, J., Puolakka, A., Nousiainen, P., Buchert, J., 2001. Action of purified Trichoderma reesei cellulases on cotton fibers and yarn. Journal of Biotechnology. 89(2-3), 247–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-....
 
65.
Pérez, J., Muñoz-Dorado, J., Rubia, T.D.L., Martínez, J., 2002. Biodegradation and biological treatments of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin: an overview. International Microbiology. 5, 53–63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10123....
 
66.
Pinos, N., Moreno, M.S., Congregado, M., 2015. Phytobezoar by aloe vera as long-term complication after oesophagectomy resolved using cellulase. International Journal of Surgery Case Reports. 13, 37–39. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.i....
 
67.
Qin, L., Kudla, U., Goverse, R.E., Popeijus, A., Nieuwland, H., Overmars, J., Jones, H., Schots, J., Smant, A., Bakker, G., Helder, J., J., 2004. A nematode expansin acting on plants. Nature. 427(6969), 30–30. https://doi.org/10.1038/427030....
 
68.
Raza, A., Bashir, S., Tabassum, R., 2019. An update on carbohydrases: growth performance and intestinal health of poultry. Heliyon. 5(4), e1437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heli....
 
69.
Refat, B., Christensen, D., Mckinnon, J., Yang, W., Beattie, A., Mcallis- ter, T., Abdel, E.J., Yu, R.G., P., 2018. Effect of fibrolytic enzymes on lactational performance, feeding behavior, and digestibility in high-producing dairy cows fed a barley silage-based diet. Journal of Dairy Science. 101(9), 7971–7979. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.20....
 
70.
Rehman, U., Mushtaq, S., Zahoor, Z., Jamil, A.T., Murtaza, M., 2013. Xylitol: A Review on Bioproduction, Application, Health Benefits, and Related Safety Issues. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 55(11), 1514–1528. https://doi.org/10.1080/104083....
 
71.
Robert, H., Bischof, J., Horejs, B., Metz, C., Gamauf, Christian, P., Kubicek, B., Seiboth., 2015. L-Methionine repressible promoters for tuneable gene expression in Trichoderma reesei. Microbial Cell Factories. 14, 120. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934....
 
72.
Rohan, A.T.J.I., Salila, J.W., Supaporn, P., Zalihe, B., Robert, H.,Maria, C.R., Carme, H., Spencer, R., James, J.W., Rkc., 2015. Single Glycosidase Harnesses Different Pyranoside Ring Transition State Conformations for Hydrolysis of Mannosides and Glucosides. ACS Catalysis. 5(10), 6041–6051. https://doi.org/10.1021/acscat....
 
73.
Roland, C., Wilhelm, Rahul, Singh, L.D., Eltis, W.W., Mohan., 2019. Bacterial contributions to delignification and lignocellulose degradation in forest soils with metagenomic and quantitative stable isotope probing. ISME J. 13, 413–429. https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41396-018-0279-6.
 
74.
Saleem, M., Rashid, M., Jabbar, A., Perveen, R., Khalid, A., Rajoka, M., 2005. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of an immobilized endoglucanase from Arachniotus citrinus. Process Biochemistry. 40(2), 849–855. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proc....
 
75.
Saxena, A., Singh, C.P., 2018. Role of various enzymes for deinking paper: a review. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 37(5), 598–612. https://doi.org/10.1080/073885....
 
76.
Setua, D.K., Shukla, M.K., Vineeta, N., Harjeet, S., Mathur, G.N., 2004. Lignin reinforced rubber composites. Polymer Composites. 21, 988– 995. https://doi.org/10.1002/pc.102....
 
77.
Shrinivas, D., Savitha, G., Raviranjan, K., Naik, G.R., 2018. A highly thermostable alkaline cellulase-free xylanase from thermoalkalophilic Bacillus sp. JB 99 suitable for paper and pulp industry: purification and characterization. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 162(7), 2049–2057. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010....
 
78.
Simo, E., Paul, B., Mari, N., Merja, I., Anu, K., Lars, P., Kristiina, K., 2019. Cloning of novel bacterial xylanases from lignocellulose- enriched compost metagenomic libraries. AMB Express. 9(1), 124– 124. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568....
 
79.
Singh, A., Kuhad, R.C., Ward, O.P., 2007. Industrial application of microbial cellulases. Lignocellulose Biotechnology: Future Prospects. I K International Publishing House. 2011, 345–358.
 
80.
Singh, A., Yadav, R., Kau, A., Mahajan, R., 2012. An eco-friendly cost- effective enzymatic methodology for deinking of school waste paper. Bioresource Technology. 120, 322–327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bior....
 
81.
Singh, D., Sharma, K.K., Jacob, S., Gakhar, S.K., 2014. Molecular docking of laccase protein from Bacillus Safensis DSKK5 isolated from earthworm gut: a novel method to study dye decolorization potential. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 225, 2175. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s11270-014-2175-7.
 
82.
Souichiro, K., Kanako, C., Naofumi, K., Eiji, M., Isao, Y., Yoichi, K., 2015. Methanogenic degradation of lignin-derived monoaromatic compounds by microbial enrichments from rice paddy field soil. Scientific Reports. 5, 14295. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep14....
 
83.
Sujani, S., Seresinhe, R., 2015. Exogenous Enzymes in Ruminant Nutrition: A Review. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences. 9(3), 85–99. https://dx.doi.org/10.3923/aja....
 
84.
Sukumaran, R.K., Singhania, R.R., Pandey, A., 2005. Microbial cellulases- production, applications and challenges. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 64(11), 832–844.
 
85.
Syed, S., Riyaz, U., Johri, S., 2013. A Novel Cellulase from an Endophyte, Penicillium NFCCI 2862. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 1(4), 84–91. 10.12691/ajmr-1-4-4.
 
86.
Sy-Keen, J., Mukram, W., Rosli, M., Nor, M., William, M., J, Munir, A., Murad, A., Farah, D., 2017. Cellobiohydrolase B of Aspergillus niger over-expressed in Pichia pastoris stimulates hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches. PeerJ. 5, 3909–3909. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.....
 
87.
Tewari, S., Dubey, K.K., Singhal, R.S., 2018. Evaluation and application of prebiotic and probiotic ingredients for development of ready to drink tea beverage. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 55(4), 1525–1534. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197....
 
88.
Thu, V., Vuong, Arja-Helena, V., Minna, M.F., Jukka, J., Maija, S., Emma, T., R., 2013. Xylo- and cello-oligosaccharide oxidation by gluco-oligosaccharide oxidase from Sarocladium strictum and variants with reduced substrate inhibition. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 6(1), 148. https://doi.org/10.1186/1754-6....
 
89.
Van, D., Van, M.G., Theelen, B., Hinz, S., Vries, R.D., 2012. Efficient Plant Biomass Degradation by Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 79(4), 1316–1324. https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.02....
 
90.
Verenich, S., Arumugam, K., Shim, E., Pourdeyhimi, B., 2008. Treatment of Raw Cotton Fibers with Cellulases for Nonwoven Fabrics. Textile Research Journal. 78(6), 540–548. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0040517507083308.
 
91.
Vinod, K.N., Rani, M., Gunaseeli, R., Kannan, N., 2018. Paper pulp modification and deinking efficiency of cellulase-xylanase complex from Escherichia coli SD5. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 111, 289–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbi....
 
92.
Wang, Q., Liu, S., Yang, G., Chen, J., Ni, Y., 2015. Cationic polyacrylamide enhancing cellulase treatment efficiency of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp. Bioresource Technology. 183, 42–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bior....
 
93.
Wang, T., Liu, X., Yu, Q., Zhang, X., Qu, Y., Gao, P., Wang, T., 2005. Directed evolution for engineering pH profile of endoglucanase III from Trichoderma reesei. Biomolecular Engineering. 22(1-3), 89–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioe....
 
94.
Wang, T.N., Zhao, M., 2016. A simple strategy for extracellular production of CotA laccase in Escherichia coli and decolorization of simulated textile effluent by recombinant laccase. Applied Microbiol- ogy and Biotechnology. 101(2), 685–696. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s00253-016-7897-6.
 
95.
Wang, X., Pei, D., Teng, Y., Liang, J., 2018. Effects of enzymes to improve sensory quality of frozen dough bread and analysis on its mechanism. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 55(1), 389– 398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197....
 
96.
Wenyan, Z., Jinzhou, W., Zhenhua, Z., Fei, R., Litong, C., Jin, S.H., 2016. Changes in litter quality induced by nutrient addition alter litter decomposition in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Scientific Reports. 6, 34290. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep34....
 
97.
Wong, K.K., Tan, L.U., Saddler, J.N., 1998. Multiplicity of beta- 1, 4-xylanase in microorganisms: functions and applications. Microbiology Reviews. 52(3), 305–317. https://doi.org/10.1128/mr.52.....
 
98.
Xiaojuan, F., André, J.S., Kevin, P., Dudley, W., Myrna, J.S., 2008. Increased cuticular carbon sequestration and lignin oxidation in response to soil warming. Nature Geoscience. 1, 836–839. https:// doi.org/10.1038/ngeo361.
 
99.
Xue, K., Malitha, A.K., Dickwella, C., Frederic, W., Daniel, M.V., Tuo, J.C., W., 2019. Lignin-polysaccharide interactions in plant secondary cell walls revealed by solid-state NMR. Nature Commu- nications. 10, 347. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467....
 
100.
Yao, L., Yong, C.L., Hong, Q.H., Feng, J.X., Xian, Y.W., Xing, F., 2017. Structural Characterization of Lignin and Its Degradation Products with Spectroscopic Methods. Journal of Spectroscopy. 2017, 8951658. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8....
 
101.
Yong, H., Yijing, D., Shi, Q., Meng, W., Chao, J., Hui, C., Yunming, F., Tianwei, T., 2018. Lignin-first biorefinery: a reusable catalyst for lignin depolymerization and application of lignin oil to jet fuel aromatics and polyurethane feedstock. Sustainable Energy & Fuels. 2, 637–647. https://doi.org/10.1039/C7SE00....
 
102.
Yun, W., Shuzhen, Z., Xueyan, G., Honglin, H., 2008. Adsorption of chromium(III) on lignin. Bioresource Technology. 99, 7709–7715. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bior....
 
103.
Zeng, J., Lin, X., Zhang, J., Li, X., Wong, M.H., 2011. Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the bacterial laccase CueO from E. coli. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 89, 1841–1849. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253....
 
104.
Zhang, N., Kallis, R., Ewy, R., Portis, A., 2002. Light modulation of Rubisco in Arabidopsis requires a capacity for redox regulation of the larger Rubisco activase isoform. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99(5), 3330– 3334. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0....
 
105.
Zhang, Y., Dong, W., Lv, Z., Liu, J., Zhang, W., Zhou, J., Xin, F., Ma, J., Jiang, M., 2018. Surface Display of Bacterial Laccase CotA on Escherichia coli Cells and its Application in Industrial Dye Decolorization. Molecular Biotechnology. 60(9), 681–689. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s12033-018-010....